Authors: Matthew J. Wolf, Alexander L. Shluger
We present an overview of the structure and properties of clean steps at the surfaces of binary oxides, utilising recent data from scanning probe and spectroscopic experiments, and theoretical calculations. We review and discuss their atomic structure, electronic structure, and interactions with prototypical point defects, using examples from studies on technologically important oxides such as MgO, CeO2, TiO2 and ZrO2. We also review methods of calculating the step formation energy, and discuss reasons for their limited success in explaining the step structures observed in experiments.
Defects at Oxide Surfaces , Springer Series in Surface Sciences Volume 58 , 2015, pp 191-214.