Authors: Pavlin D. Mitev, Imre Bakó, Anders Eriksson and Kersti Hermansson
Precise molecular-level information on the water molecule is precious, since it affects our interpretation of the role of water in a range of important applications of aqueous media. Here we propose that electronic structure calculations for highly hydrated crystals yield such information. Properties of nine structurally different water molecules (19 independent OO hydrogen bonds) in the Al(NO3)3·9H2O crystal have been calculated from DFT calculations. We combine the advantage of studying different water environments using one and the same compound and method (instead of comparing a set of independent experiments, each with its own set of errors) with the advantage of knowing the exact atomic positions, and the advantage of calculating properties that are difficult to extract from experiment. We find very large Wannier dipole moments for H2O molecules surrounding the cations: 4.0–4.3 D (compared to our calculated value of 1.83 D in the gas phase). These are induced by the ions and the H-bonds, while other water interactions and the relaxation of the internal water geometry in fact decrease the dipole moments. We find a good correlation between the water dipole moment and the OO distances, and an even better (non-linear) correlation with the average electric field over the molecule. Literature simulation data for ionic aqueous solutions fit quite well with our crystalline ‘dipole moment vs. OO distance’ curve. The progression of the water and cation charges from ‘small clusters ⇒ large clusters ⇒ the crystal’ helps explain why the net charges on all the water molecules are so small in the crystal.
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014, 16, 9351-9363
, , , , , and
We have calculated the anharmonic OH−(aq) vibrational spectrum in aqueous solution with a “classical Monte Carlo simulation + QM/MM + vibrational” sequential approach. A new interaction model was used in the Monte Carlo simulations: a modified version of the charged-ring hydroxide-water model from the literature. This spectrum is compared with experiment and with a spectrum based on CPMD-generated structures, and the hydration structures and H-bonding for the two models are compared. We find that: (i) the solvent-induced frequency shift as well as the absolute OH− frequency are in good agreement with experiment using the two models; (ii) the Raman and IR bands are very similar, in agreement with experiment; (iii) the hydration structure and H-bonding around the ion are very different with the two ion-water interaction models (charged-ring and CPMD); (iv) a cancellation effect between different regions of the hydration shell makes the total spectra similar for the two interaction models, although their hydration structures are different; (v) the net OH− frequency shift is a blueshift of about +80 cm−1 with respect to frequency of the gas-phase ion.
J. Chem. Phys. 138, 064503 (2013);
Kersti Hermansson, Philippe A. Bopp, Daniel Spångberg, Ljupco Pejov, Imre Bakó, Pavlin D. Mitev
The OH− ion in water is studied using a CPMD/BLYP + QMelectronic + QMvibrational approach. The ion resides in a cage of water molecules, which are H-bonded among each other, and pinned by H-bonding to the ion’s O atom. The water network keeps the ‘on-top’ water in place, despite the fact that this particular ion-water pair interaction is non-binding. The calculated OH− vibrational peak maximum is at ∼3645 cm−1 (experiment ∼3625 cm−1) and the shift with respect to the gas-phase is ∼ +90 cm−1 (experiment +70 cm−1). The waters molecules on each side of the ion (O and H) induce a substantial OH− vibrational blueshift, but the net effect is much smaller than the sum. A parabolic ‘frequency-field’ relation qualitatively explains this non-additivity. The calculated ‘in-liquid’ ν(OH−) anharmonicity is 85 cm−1.
Chemical Physics Letters, Vol. 514, 2011, Pages 1–15